- There is no indefinite article (English a, an); there is only a definite article la*
- Nouns have the ending -o. To form the plural, add the ending -j. There are only two cases: nominative and accusative; the latter can be obtained from the nominative by adding the ending -n. The other cases are expressed with the aid of prepositions.
- Adjectives end in -a. Cases and numbers are as for nouns. The comparative is made with the word pli*, the superlative with plej*; for the comparative the conjunction ol* is used.
- The basic numerals (not declined) are: unu, du, tri, kvar, kvin, ses, sep, ok, naux, dek, cent, mil*. Tens and hundreds are formed by simple juxtaposition of the numerals. To show ordinal numbers we add the adjective ending; for multiples, the suffix -obl; for fractions (actually, reciprocals), -on; for collectives, -op; for divisionals, the word (particle) po. Noun and adverb numerals can also be used.
- Personal pronouns: mi, vi, li, sxi, gxi, si, ci, ni, vi, ili, oni*; the possessive pronouns are formed by addition of the adjective ending. Declension is as for nouns.
- The verb does not change for person or number. Forms of the verb: present time takes the ending -as; past time, -is; future time, -os; conditional mood, -us; command mood, -u; infinitive mood, -i. Participles (with adjectival or adverbial meaning): present active, -ant; past active, -int; future active, -ont; present passive, -at; past passive, -it; future passive, -ot. All forms of the passive are formed with the aid of the corresponding form of the verb esti (English to be) and the passive participle of the required verb; the preposition with the passive is de (English by).
- Adverbs can be formed from adjectives by changing the -a ending to an -e ending (like English -ly).
- All prepositions take the nominative.
- Every word is read as it is written.
- Stress is penultimate*
- Compound words are formed by simple juxtaposition of words (the main word stands at the end); the grammatical endings are also viewed as independent words.
- When another negative word is present, the word ne is omitted.
- To show direction, words take the accusative ending.
- Every preposition has a definite and permanent meaning, but if we have to use a preposition and the direct meaning doesn't tell us what preposition we should take, then we use the preposition je, which has no independent meaning. Instead of je the accusative without a preposition may be used.
- Loanwords are used in Esperanto without change, taking on only the orthography of this language; but for different words from a single root it is better to use without change only the basic word, and form the rest from this latter according to the rules of Esperanto.
- The final vowel of the noun and the article may be dropped and replaced by an apostrophe (without effect on stress).